Division Governance & Conflict
The following explains how the implementation principles are applied in Division 4C “Governance and Conflict”.
The 2030 Agenda contains numerous clear references to governance, conflict and peace issues. Governance is often mentioned as a means to an end for the implementation of other sectoral goals of sustainable development (Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs) - and peace as a basic requirement for sustainable development.
In the 2030 Agenda, for the first time, social, economic and ecological dimensions are mutually dependent and of equal value. The fight against poverty, sustainable development and resource protection are all combined within a single agende. Progress in one area should not minimize other developments. Any trade-offs that arise should be addressed in a structured and inclusive dialogue with non-state actors. Ideally, this presupposes constructive state-society relationships, mechanisms and capacities for peaceful conflict management and good governance. Particularly in fragile contexts affected by violence, conflicting goals are obvious and often politically sensitive. Room for civil society engagement and inclusive processes is often limited or only available for certain groups.
This complex and intersectoral understanding of sustainable development is shared among planning officers, but these approaches are often not implemented by donors or government agencies in partner countries due to “silo thinking”.
In the clarification phase of the appraisal, possible interfaces to other sectors and projects should already be determined in cooperation with the specialist and method managers in order to incorporate the relevant expertise that covers all three dimensions of sustainability. In this context, the paper on governance in and with sectors is available to planning officers as an aid. “Sector governance” can be understood as an approach to deal with sectoral and governance issues in an integrated manner. This can increase the effectiveness and sustainability of sectoral programs and governance interventions.
It should also be noted that the possibility of a cross-sectoral change strategy should be checked at the time the brief assessment is drawn up. Particularly in fragile contexts, it is necessary to proceed in a context and conflict sensitive manner in order to avoid or minimize possible negative risks and effects.
During the appraisal mission, the team can discuss whether, in addition to the partner ministry, other specialist ministries should be included in the steering structure of the project in order to support an integrated implementation of the reform projects in the partner country and promote inter-ministerial cooperation.
With the introduction of the Safeguards + Gender Management System, a binding minimum standard was created for all business areas and clients of GIZ. It covers all four phases of order management and subjects topics such as environment, climate, human rights, conflict and context sensitivity and gender to a systematic review process for external risks and unintended, negative effects for all three dimensions. In the context of gender, potentials for promoting gender equality are also examined.
As part of the “Adaptation to Climate Change in National and Local Development Planning” project, German development cooperation is supporting the Government of Bangladesh in integrating the issue of climate change into the national planning and budgeting process. The national climate strategy of 2009 was not adequately reflected in the government's sixth five-year plan (2011-2015). Sector ministries were therefore unable to claim additional resources for the implementation of the action plan through the national budget. As part of the preparation of the seventh five-year plan, there was then the opportunity to integrate relevant aspects. GIZ is supporting the government of Bangladesh on behalf of the federal government in drawing up an implementation plan agreed between the Ministry of the Environment, the planning commission and the Ministry of Finance.
The municipal development project "Strengthening local administrations in Nepal" has been supporting local administrations since 2015 in providing demand-oriented services. As part of the appraisal mission for an additional offer, a workshop was held with those responsible for other projects in the country (including those from the energy, health and agriculture sectors). Interdependencies and potential for cooperation between the sectors were discussed in order to achieve the sustainability goals of the 2030 Agenda more efficiently through synergies between the individual projects. On the basis of this communication process, an offer can now be developed in which local governance functions as a link between the various projects.
Further examples across sectors and SDGs can be found in the publication “Gender takes Center Stage - at GIZ and in the Agenda 2030”.
Peace and good governance are prerequisites for sustainable development that leaves no one behind. Only through the existence of conducive framework conditions can the living conditions of those most left behind, i.e. marginalized people and population groups, be sustainably improved. Improving living conditions means ending poverty (SDG 1), reducing inequality worldwide (SDG 10) and sustainably promoting more social cohesion and peace in the world - between and in individual countries.
Leaving no country behind: Intergovernmental or international level
By promoting good governance, a contribution is made to reducing inequality between states. Stabilization also creates an important prerequisite for sustainable development.
Leaving no one behind: Individual level
In addition to the GIZ Safeguards + Gender Management System, the BMZ guidelines for taking into account human rights standards and principles, including gender, should be used when drafting program proposals in order to understand the relevant human rights risks and effects of an advisory approach. In the BMZ business, beyond context and conflict sensitivity (Do No Harm), all projects should make positive contributions to realizing human rights.
For countries that are fragile or are affected by violence and conflict, assumptions should be derived from the integrated context and human rights analysis, both on possible disadvantaged target groups and on specific do-no-harm aspects, which should be checked or adjusted during the appraisal mission.
The Terms of Reference (ToR) of the appraisal missions should contain the following additions:
If possible, target groups should be disaggregated in the formulation of objectives and indicators - otherwise at least the derivation should be made clear in the module proposal (especially in the chapters "Goals, target group, impact hypotheses and indicators" and "Problem and potential analysis"). The breakdown by gender and the consideration of the different realities of life, needs and concerns of women and men is a mandatory requirement according to BMZ guidelines and a quality feature of our work.
By emphasizing differences in polarized societies or for politically disadvantaged population groups, the collection of disaggregated data can potentially exacerbate conflicts and endanger target groups. This should already be taken into account in the integrated context and human rights analysis within the framework of Safeguards + Gender. For projects in which people in poverty or other marginalized groups are the direct target group, the Poverty Targeting Primer can provide orientation on the strengths and weaknesses of various targeting methods.
Within the framework of the “Program for the Promotion of Civil Society in the Palestinian Territories”, there is increased cooperation with people with disabilities and their self-advocacy organizations. Due to the poorly democratic context, these are severely limited in their political and social representation. The efficiency with which civil society partner organizations represent their interests is therefore promoted in order to give people with disabilities - including those with cognitive and psychological impairments – a voice in social discourse and increased visibility. This will improve the implementation of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the inclusion of people with disabilities in international cooperation programs. The concerns of women and girls are actively promoted.
How is the principle addressed:
The “Regional Project Strengthening Resilience in Neighboring Countries Receiving Refugees in the Syrian Crisis” aims to improve the framework conditions for refugees and host communities by implementing coherent measures on a regional scale in order to strengthn resilience.
Where was the principle applied within existing structures:
What was done differently:
Closely related to the LNOB principle is another principle that can be found in numerous SDGs and is anchored in SDG 16. This is the call for inclusive processes and the participation of civil society and private sector actors in the transformation agenda. These actors should be involved in setting priorities and goals as well as in their implementation and monitoring. Particularly controversial issues can be resolved in an inclusive and constructive state-society dialogue. Inclusion and participation can be politically very sensitive, especially in fragile and violent contexts, but at the same time offer the opportunity to address sensitive issues. However, this presupposes the will and the ability to participate and mechanisms for a constructive and non-violent state-society dialogue including all actors. In light of the limited scope of action of civil society actors, the inclusiveness of the transformation process is especially relevant. Results from an inclusive process are more legitimate and sustainable.
As part of the “OECD Network on Conflict and Fragility” (INCAF), the international community is investigating the extent to which external actors can support inclusive political reform and negotiation processes and help build trust between the state and society. The results of a study suggest that, on the one hand, bureaucratic restrictions are a hindrance for donors and, on the other hand, that donors should not assume the role of problem solvers but rather as companions for local inclusive transformation processes.
Responsibility for implementing the 2030 Agenda and fulfilling the SDGs does not lie solely with the governments of the nation states, but is the responsibility of everyone: civil society, the private sector and states. The partnership approach requires greater cooperation between the various actors at local, regional, national and international level and the use of the agenda as a shared strategic vision for all stakeholders to promote peaceful and sustainable development.
Partnerships create added value for everyone involved. Cooperation between state and non-state actors promotes constructive state-society relationships and social inclusion (SDG 16.7). Multi-actor partnerships (MAPs) are not a fundamentally new approach in German development cooperation - many projects involve collaboration with different actors and partnerships are consciously promoted. Examples include NGO alliances, partnerships between individual NGOs and ministries, public-private partnerships, certain control mechanisms of specifications, etc. In fragile, violence, conflict or post-war contexts, a first meeting of potential partners can already be an initial success as mutual trust only grows slowly and is a basic requirement for a successful partnership.
A number of different governance alliances are in the process of being formed at global level, in some cases with local groups. Some of our partner countries have already joined such alliances. The most important ones at present appear to be the following:
The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is an international initiative that involves numerous NGOs, companies and countries that are dedicated to achieving financial transparency and accountability in the extractives sector. EITI has become an internationally established transparency standard for disclosing financial flows in this sector. More than fifty countries are now members and it is supported at international level by many donor countries, non-governmental organisations, companies in the extractives industry and institutional investors. The initiative is implemented on the ground by local multi-stakeholder groups with the participation of state, governmental and civil-society representatives. In many countries, EITI implementation kick-starts debates on mineral resources and development that go far beyond financial transparency and transcend individual stakeholder groups. GIZ advises partner countries in preparing for and making successful use of EITI membership. Among other things, projects support stakeholder dialogues and outreach measures, the production of EITI reports to compare the tax payments made in the sector, or to strengthen civil-society groups in performing their oversight function within the EITI process. In addition, GIZ supports the implementation of EITI in Germany (D-EITI) and thereby promotes dialogue and transparency in the German extractives sector.
The special challenges involved in measuring indicators to meet the accountability obligations of the individual governments are based on the following factors:
Legal and institutional frameworks are often underdeveloped, especially in fragile contexts, which means that they are not in a position to ensure suitable legislation, planning processes and quality management at the relevant institutions. A further obstacle is the difficulty of collecting qualitative data of a politically sensitive nature. The collection of subjective data such as the perceptions, needs and experiences of people who may be intentionally marginalised by the political system in sensitive contexts may also jeopardise these sections of the population, and is very difficult without the related political will. Added to this, governmental institutions do not enjoy the same level of trust and legitimacy among all population groups, particularly in fragile countries, and collection of these data is often undesirable.
Appraisals should take a closer look particularly at the following areas of action, and a targeted capacity development approach should be followed in this direction:
Projects designed to strengthen the government’s financial capacities and to foster decentralised data collection as well as e-government and digitalisation projects can make an important contribution in this respect. What is important is that such approaches give consideration to the entire statistics system and subject both institutional frameworks (access to information) and data governance and the data cycle (design, indicator development, collection, validation and evaluation) to the requirements of the 2030 Agenda (participatory, open, LNOB, data literacy, transparency).
GIZ is responding to the challenges presented by the review process by providing advisory services in several country contexts. The company also has a wealth of expertise in setting up M&E systems across different sectors. Based on a declaration of cooperation between GIZ and the German Federal Statistical Office signed in January 2017, GIZ also has the possibility to offer specific advisory services on increasing statistical capacities in partner countries. Beyond this, GIZ has also positioned itself at international level in a review network designed to examine implementation of the SDGs via Partners for Review.
The Programme of support for decentralisation reforms in Ghana places its focus on building local data collection capacities in agreement with the country’s national commitment to the 2030 Agenda review process. To this end, the aim is to create a platform for the collected data that is freely accessible to civil society. The data will be disaggregated in order to make visible the changes down to local level and to enable decentralised development planning.
To achieve sustainable development, every country needs to develop or change. All countries of the world – developing countries, emerging economies and industrialized nations alike - are called on in equal measure to question the impact of their own actions on global issues, such as illegal arms trading, illegal financial flows, human trafficking, pollution of the oceans and climate change, and to seek solutions at both the national and the international, global level and implement these solutions within partnerships. Each country bears responsibility for defining its contributions to achievement of the 2030 Agenda in light of national policies and conditions, and for defining its global commitment. Governments are called on to outline a national strategy for implementation of the 2030 Agenda in the national context, including national priorities, and to enter into global partnerships for implementation (SDG 17). Global issues such as Migration, human, drug and arms trafficking have a direct impact on local contexts, peace and conflict dynamics in both the global South and the North in low-income and high-income countries and must be reflected more jointly and incorporated into national, regional and global policies.
When examining projects that affect global/international issues and problems, it is important to consider whether there are any (global, regional) partnerships/initiatives etc. that address the problem and could be relevant for the project, or whether there is a need to foster an inclusive dialogue on this.