Division Governance & Conflict
The Competence Centre for the Rule of Law and Security is subdivided into four main thematic areas – legal and judicial systems, human rights, gender, and security – and provides sectoral and methodological advice in these areas. The main focus of this competence centre is on SDGs 5 (gender equality) and 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions), although other SDGs will also become relevant. Despite the division into teams, the thematic areas are closely related in terms of content and there are also many overlaps in terms of individual projects: many of these also work on a range of priority areas that fall under the remit of several different teams. Moreover, human rights and gender are cross-cutting issues that are relevant throughout the company.
The support provided by the legal and judicial systems team relates predominantly to the development of legal systems that meet the needs of all groups and genders, and to the application of these systems. The main emphasis is on strengthening the rule of law and legal frameworks (SDGs 10.3, 16.3, 16.b) by supporting good governance and working closely with partners on the ground. This is achieved in particular by means of judicial reforms and the promotion of equal access to justice for all (access to justice, SDG 16.3). One element of this process is for state executing agencies to discharge their binding obligations under international law in an appropriate manner (SDG 16.9). Another prerequisite for the rule of law is judicial independence so that rights holders can demand their rights (SDG 16.10). In order to do so, these rights holders above all have to know their rights and gain greater awareness of them. Effective protection of the rights of these individuals in turn calls for the pertinent legislation and application of the law, as well as its effective enforcement (SDG 16.6, 16.7). Reforms that are designed to modernise judicial systems frequently include the introduction of e-justice to support digital change and to enhance transparency and civic participation. This mainly concerns information and communication technologies used within the judicial system and between its organs, public administration and private individuals. As a whole, the rule of law forms the foundation for the protection and enjoyment of human rights and for gender equality.
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The human rights team focuses on strengthening human rights regimes (SDG 16.10). This is achieved in particular by respecting, protecting and safeguarding human rights. The rights of marginalised and especially vulnerable groups (SDGs 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 4.5, 6.2, 10.2) and of children and young people play a key role in this context. Actors involved in the implementation of human rights are organisations and institutions that are designed to comply with and protect human rights. Implementation focuses on the principles of effective participation, empowerment, non-discrimination (SDGs 10.2, 16.b), equal opportunities and leaving no one behind (SDG 16.9, among others). Further principles are transparency and accountability. Since the term ‘human rights’ is very extensive, it concerns many different SDGs and is particularly relevant with regard to discrimination. Discrimination can be combatted by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard (SDG 10.3). The human rights complex also plays a company-wide role and is reflected among other things in the Safeguards+Gender management system.
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Gender is mentioned explicitly in SDG 5, Gender equality, and plays a central role in connection with the SDGs. The main aim is to achieve gender equality by implementing gender policies and strategies (SDGs 4.7, 4.a, 5.a, 5.c, 6.2, 8.5, 8.8) and by strengthening women’s rights. Key areas therefore concern not only the prevention of discrimination in the private and public sphere (SDGs 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 5.1) and gender mainstreaming, but also the strengthening and improvement of women’s position in society (SDG 5.b, 5.5). Further aims are to ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life (SDGs 5.5, 10.2). Gender-based violence (SDG 5.2, 5.3) is often a central element of problems related to gender. Gender also impacts on SDGs in other thematic areas (including SDG 11.7).
Gender is also of great importance within GIZ as part of the Safeguards+Gender management system, the gender strategy and GIZ’s guidelines on corporate sustainability.
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GIZ’s field of activity ‘Safety and security’ supports the emergence and strengthening of a legitimate state monopoly on the use of force to realise human safety and security. The foremost priority is to protect the safety and security of citizens (SDG 16.1, 16.2). We place our support for the security sector within the broader context of peacebuilding and state-building (principle of the 2030 Agenda’s integrated system of goals). In this area, we build capacities and create the structural prerequisites for strengthening governance of the security sector. This is done for one thing by establishing and reforming police forces, community policing, arms control, disarmament, demobilisation and the reintegration of ex-combatants, integrated border management and regional peace and security architectures. Creating safe conditions for migrants under the rule of law (SDG 10.7, 11.2) plays a role in this context, as does the safeguarding of a secure environment in cities (‘safer cities’, SDG 11.1). Special emphasis should be placed on the growing and increasingly complex transnational security challenges such as organised crime and violent extremism (SDG 16.4, 16.a). Basic governance challenges such as systemic corruption, the exclusion of social groups and human rights violations by the state should also be taken into consideration here. We therefore pursue a human-rights-based approach that centres on individuals or groups affected by violence, insecurity or arbitrary governance, as well as on their needs for and right to protection (leaving no one behind).
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The Competence Centre for Public Finance and Administration pools the company’s sectoral and methodological expertise related to the promotion of good financial governance by means of corresponding tax reforms, budget planning and budget execution, internal and external financial control, fiscal decentralisation and the topics of administrative reform and statistics, anti-corruption and resource governance in the extractive sector.
There are many overlaps with the SDGs and the principles of the 2030 Agenda when it comes to addressing these themes. The 2030 Agenda’s relevance to governance goes far beyond SDG 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions). At least 20 per cent of the goals and targets are related to the theme of governance. The interplay between good governance and sustainable development is particularly apparent in SDGs 5: Gender equality, 10: Reduced inequalities, 11: Sustainable cities and communities, and 17: Partnerships for the goals. The 2030 Agenda gives consideration to the theme of governance not as an end in itself, but interlinks this closely with the SDGs and their targets. Thus, SDG 5.5 is devoted to ensuring women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life, and in so doing simultaneously promotes responsive, inclusive and participatory decision-making processes (SDG 16.7). The integrative approach of the 2030 Agenda, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies (SDG 1.b), is also the essential framework for action for the fields of expertise located within the competence centre.
By promoting good financial governance in the public finance sector, German DC can support partners in enhancing the ownership and accountability of state institutions, collecting revenue efficiently and dealing transparently with finances (SDG 16.6 and SDG 16.4). Beyond this, the 2030 Agenda emphasises the need to create a conducive environment, since governance deficiencies and the blocking of reforms impede the achievement of goals in other sectors. This is where sector governance becomes relevant to international and German DC, given that governance affects the way decisions are made and policies are formulated and implemented within a state. Ten of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals relate directly or indirectly to good financial governance (see fact sheet GFG and the SDGs). Increasing domestic income, for example, is a key prerequisite for financing the 2030 Agenda (SDG 17.1). To create this prerequisite, we provide support for the sustainable strengthening of a state’s ability to finance its own requirements within an efficient and equitable taxation system, for instance by building the capacities of tax authorities and promoting international cooperation. The international community has also committed to doubling its efforts to combat illicit financial flows (IFFs) (SDG 16.4). In order to achieve implementation of the SDGs, for instance in the core areas of education, gender equality, health and poverty reduction, we provide advice on development-oriented budget planning and execution (SDG 1.3 and 1.4, SDG 3.7, SDG 4.5, SDG 5). Credible budget planning (i.e. match between planned and actual figures) is also used as a yardstick for institutional performance, transparency and accountability (SDG 16.6).
External financial control can also be used as a lever at several levels of the SDGs. Thus, independent audit authorities influence the development of effective and accountable institutions and help to combat corruption (SDG 16.6). Over and beyond this, audit authorities can play a key role in collecting data for measuring the progress made (SDG 17.9) towards achieving the SDGs, and can thus provide control mechanisms for implementing laws in key sectors (e.g. climate change (SDG 13.2)).
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In the administrative reform sector, we support our partners in setting up an effective and efficient, transparent and accountable public administration (SDG 16.6). We strengthen partner administrations to make processes more effective, provide services more promptly and put limited HR and financial resources to more efficient use, taking advantage of the new opportunities offered by digitalisation.
Target 16.5 of the SDGs is: ‘Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms’. In target 16.3 of its Sustainable Development Strategy, the German Government explicitly undertakes to support partner countries in their anti-corruption efforts. Apart from that, corruption is a criminal offence that leads to illegal financial flows and opens the door for other criminal offences such as human trafficking and organised crime. Successful anti-corruption activities therefore also help to reduce illicit financial flows from developing countries (target 16.4).
In our advisory services to partner countries, we follow a holistic and systemic approach that aims to strengthen the entire anti-corruption chain consisting of prevention, disclosure, prosecution and sanctioning. We intervene at strategic points along this chain. Cooperation with our partner institutions is particularly successful when the flow of information along this anti-corruption chain is improved and cooperation is supported among the actors involved. Over and above this, corruption directly or indirectly jeopardises the achievement of the SDGs in terms of economic development, inequality and poverty, peace and security and environmental protection. We therefore address anti-corruption as a cross-cutting issue by assisting our partners in promoting the principles of transparency, accountability, participation and integrity in all sectors. We also support our partner countries in building statistical capacities that result in high data quality, consistency and trustworthiness. The availability of data is a key foundation for establishing the progress made in achieving development goals by individual countries. It enables administrations to evaluate the effectiveness with which national and global agendas are put into practice, to take the necessary development measures in accordance with evidence-based policy formulation and helps to comply with the Agenda’s accountability principle (SDG 16.6 and 16.a, 16.7). Disaggregated data are required in order to implement the principles of the 2030 Agenda, such as the leave no one behind principle (SDG 13.b). These data make it possible to provide target-group-appropriate solutions that promote the development progress of disadvantaged population groups. With the aim of creating a coherent statistics system in our partner countries, we advise national statistics offices and line ministries in systematising and standardising the individual process steps along the data value chain, consisting of data collection, data processing and provision, data analysis and data use (SDG 17.18). In this context, key importance is accorded to enhancing the capacities of experts, strengthening the organisational capacities of statistical institutions and promoting legal frameworks. Equally important is the (further) development of suitable coordination and cooperation structures, e.g. with civil society, academia and the private sector (SDG 17.6, 17.7, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16). Our advisory approach also incorporates the opportunities offered by digitalisation for data collection and processing. Modern data collection and evaluation processes such as real-time data collection, satellite-based processes, big data and artificial intelligence in evaluation offer new ways of closing gaps in data and improving access to data (e.g. using data sets that are disaggregated by regional and socio-economic factors, and by mapping the interactions between the SDGs). Organisations are simultaneously advised on how to align their methods of data collection, processing and analysis with international standards, and to standardise their authorisation and publication practice in light of data protection and data security aspects. We also give advice on setting up national M&E systems that are geared to examining the degree of achievement of the SDGs (SDG 17.19).
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The resource governance sector holds many opportunities and risks with regard to economic, environmental and social aspects of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Resource wealth offers the opportunity of mobilising a country’s own income to finance development goals (SDG 17.1). Multi-stakeholder partnerships such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) support the transparent collection and use of taxes and thus create key conditions for integrity, the development orientation of state actions and a better relationship between the state and its citizens (SDG 16.5, SDG 16.6, SDG 16.8, SDG 16.10, SDG 17.15).The mineral resource sector also holds significant potential for creating new economic opportunities for citizens and local communities, for promoting employment – especially for young people and women – and for developing economic relations between the local supplier industry and the mining sector. This helps to diversify and strengthen the local value chain (SDG 5.5, SDG 8.2, SDG 8.3, SDG 8.5, SDG 8.10, SDG 9.2, SDG 9.3). Mineral resources are increasingly being produced by artisanal mining operations. On the one hand this provides an important source of income for reducing poverty (SDG 1.1, SDG 1.2, SDG 1.4), but on the other hand it creates huge challenges, since mineral resources are often extracted under inhumane and discriminatory conditions, leading to environmental pollution and the use of income to finance conflicts. The approaches used are therefore designed to ensure compliance with international standards, e.g. to prevent human rights violations, gender-based discrimination and environmental pollution, and to fulfil the duty of care in promoting responsible supply chains for minerals from conflict and high-risk areas (SDG 5.1, SDG 5.2, SDG 8.7, SDG 8.8, SDG 12.2, SDG 12.4, SDG 12.6, SDG 15.1, SDG 16.1, SDG 16.4).
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The Competence Centre for Democracy, Policy Dialogue, Urban Development pools the sectoral and methodological expertise on decentralisation and local governance, the promotion of democracy and state-building, political participation, strategic communication and policy dialogue, urban and regional development, and on the linking of governance with digital developments and processes (e-governance).
There are many overlaps with the SDGs and the principles of the 2030 Agenda when it comes to addressing these themes. The 2030 Agenda’s relevance to governance goes far beyond SDG 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions). At least 20 per cent of the goals and targets are related to the theme of governance. The interplay of good governance and sustainable development is particularly evident in SDGs 5: Gender equality, 10: Reduced inequalities, 11: Sustainable cities and communities and 17: Partnerships for the goals. The 2030 Agenda gives consideration to the theme of governance not as an end in itself, but interlinks this closely with the SDGs and their targets. Thus, SDG 5.5 is devoted to ensuring women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life, and in so doing simultaneously promotes responsive, inclusive and participatory decision-making processes (SDG 16.7). The integrative approach of the 2030 Agenda, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies (SDG 1.b), is also the essential framework for action for the fields of expertise located within the competence centre.
In the field of decentralisation of government and administration systems, we support our partners in redistributing decision-making powers, tasks and resources between the national and sub-national levels. The aim is to enable state institutions to provide more efficient, accountable and transparent services (SDG 16.6 and 16.a). Decentralised government and administrative units can involve citizens more directly and comprehensively in planning and decision-making processes and thus ensure responsive, inclusive and participatory decision-making processes at all levels of the state (SDG 16.7). Beyond this, decentralisation processes offer the basis for strengthening domestic income by building capacities to collect the taxes that are essential for implementing the SDGs (SDG 17.1). This provision of resources is required, for instance, to ensure that all population groups benefit in equal measure from access to economic resources and basic services such as education (SDG 4.c), health care services (SDG 3.8, SDG 5.6) and water supply and sanitation (SDG 6), and from both natural resources and technologies (SDG 1.4, SDG 5.a). Equal access to resources is secured by strengthening the social, economic and political inclusion of all population groups, irrespective of their age, sex, ethnicity and/or religion (SDG 10.2), which also gives consideration to the ‘leave no one behind’ principle as one of the five overarching principles of the 2030 Agenda. Activities in this field centre on securing equal opportunities for all social groups and eliminating discriminatory legislation and political practices (SDG 10.3).
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Strengthening democratic institutions and building structures for political participation at state level must be combined with the enshrinement of democratic principles and processes at societal level. A vital civil society is a key pillar of functioning democracies, and a prerequisite for constructive relationships between state and society. The strengthening and promotion of effective partnerships between public institutions and civil-society actors (SDG 17.7) and access to information in line with the safeguarding of fundamental freedoms (SDG 16.10) form the framework for civil-society participation in consensus-building and decision-making processes at all levels of the state (SDG 16.7). The high degree to which political participation is relevant to implementation of the 2030 Agenda is clearly demonstrated by the interfaces with many other SDGs, principles and indicators. These include participatory and integrated urban planning (SDG 11.3), the participation of local communities in water and sanitation management (SDG 6.b), and the political inclusion of all population groups to overcome discrimination (SDG 10.2).
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Work in the area of urban and regional development pursues the initial aim of making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable (SDG 11). However, the urban dimension of the SDGs goes well beyond SDG 11. (Studies (including United Cities and Local Governments, UN Habitat) argue that all 17 SDGs are important for local governments. Twenty-three per cent of the 230 SDG indicators have a clear urban component, and up to 65 per cent of the 169 SDG targets cannot be successfully implemented without the suitable involvement of local actors.) Promoting the abilities of local governments and administrations to find appropriate solutions for the sustainable development of cities and metropolitan regions is directly related to the education, water, energy and infrastructure goals of the 2030 Agenda (SDG 4, SDG 6, SDG 7 and SDG 9). These aim to provide affordable and equal access to public services and the corresponding infrastructure for all population groups. At the same time, these appropriate solutions to urban and regional development are aimed at strengthening resilience and adaptability to climate-related risks and natural disasters (SDG 1.5 and SDG 13.1). Such measures are geared in particular to least developed countries and small island developing states, and specifically target women, young people and local and marginalised communities in line with the ‘leave no one behind’ principle (SDG 13.b). In order to realise these goals, there is a need to strengthen the relevant national institutions, also by means of global partnerships and by mobilising financial resources in order to build capacities at all levels of the state (SDG 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.a and SDG 17). In this context, coherent exchange formats in the fields of academia and research, technology and innovation – and access thereto – have proved to be essential (SDG 17.6, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16).
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In the media, communications and digital transformation sector, we support partners (governmental and non-governmental organisations, administrations, other institutions) in designing their decision-making and management processes more efficiently and effectively using digital technologies (e-government). At the same time, we promote participation and dialogue between state, civil-society and private-sector actors by means of political communication and digital applications, and enhance transparency and accountability. There are three dimensions to digitalisation in terms of implementing the SDGs. For one thing, the independent promotion of information and communications technology (ICT) is anchored in a number of different sectoral targets (SDG 4.b.; SDG 5.b.; SDG 9.c.). For another, digital change provides the fundamental framework that offers the potential for supporting achievement of the SDGs. Over and above this, digital technologies and relevant data infrastructures are crucial for designing, monitoring and transparent reporting on implementation of the SDGs. More specifically, ICT as a lever and driver for the Sustainable Development Goals can be identified as follows: they support partner countries in building statistical capacities that ensure the availability of reliable disaggregated data, for example for complying with the ‘leave no one behind’ principle, or of data that are disaggregated according to other development-related factors (e.g. income, gender, ethnicity, geographic location, etc.: see SDGs 10, 17.18, 17.19). These contribute to the performance, accountability mechanisms and transparency of state or other institutions (SDG 16.6). Moreover, media, communication and e-governance (ICT) foster the public’s acceptance of and trust in government action, and are therefore methodological and instrumental foundations for achieving the (governance) targets and indicators of the 2030 Agenda. Particularly in times of societal transformation and reform, it is essential to initiate public discourse by means of (critical) media coverage, information, dialogue and analysis, which help to ensure legitimacy as a crucial factor of constructive relationships between the state and society. In this context, a key concern and indeed a challenge is to provide public access to information and basic freedoms in line with national statutory regulations and agreements under international law (SDG 16.10). For this, institutional conditions must be created that harmonise the themes of data governance with the requirements set out in the 2030 Agenda for a participatory, open, equal and transparent process in the sense of data literacy.
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The Competence Centre for Peace and Emergency Aid is responsible for providing advice in the emergency and transitional aid, disaster risk management (DRM), crisis prevention and peacebuilding and displacement and migration sectors. Responsibility for the migration sector is shared with Division 4B00. Beyond this, the competence centre supports the development of appropriate strategies and the use of instruments for working in fragile contexts. A large number of SDGs and 2030 Agenda principles are relevant within this range. At the same time, the 2030 Agenda makes no mention of several aspects that are important for the work of the competence centre. For example, Goal 16 does not include the obligation to ensure non-violent conflict management and tolerance. This is, however, a key condition for inclusive societies or for coming to terms with the past, and for social coexistence after periods of violence. In addition, by integrating aspects of anti-discrimination, participation and inclusion, by pursuing the ‘leave no one behind’ principle and considering the SDGs as indivisible, the competence centre indirectly addresses the need for a context- and conflict-sensitive approach. The 2030 Agenda is nevertheless of outstanding importance as a global frame of reference for the competence centre’s work.
Emergency and transitional aid aims to alleviate the most urgent needs of the people concerned in the short term and to rapidly put in place the means of securing a livelihood. In the long term, it includes development and structure-building measures to establish infrastructure, food security and disaster preparedness in order to create good conditions for long-term development and social cohesion.
Ten of the 17 SDGs are relevant to emergency and transitional aid/reconstruction. The overarching guiding principle is to end poverty in all its forms everywhere (SDG 1.1 and SDG1.4). This essentially depends on ending hunger, ensuring food security and promoting sustainable agriculture (SDG 2.1-4) and on securing water supply and sanitation services (SDG 6.1-2, 6.b). This calls for the establishment of sustainable infrastructure (SDG 9.1) with domestic technologies, materials and value addition (SDG 9.b) in settlements and cities that are adapted to climate change and more resilient to disasters. This is closely related to climate action, particularly in regard to education and awareness-raising (SDG 13.3), and measures to conserve rural ecosystems (SDG 15.3). Gender equality (SDG 5.1), reducing inequalities (SDH 10.2) and inclusive and peaceful structure-building by strengthening the competencies and skills of governmental and non-governmental partners (SDG 16.6-7) are essential prerequisites in emergency and transitional aid and reconstruction. The principle of focusing interventions on the most vulnerable sections of the population, as is called for under the 2030 Agenda principle of leaving no one behind, is an integral part of our transitional aid approach.
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Disaster risk management and follow-on measures (termed disaster risk management (DRM) at GIZ) are of huge importance. DRM comprises measures to prevent and prepare for disasters and follow-on action to alleviate their impact.
The 2030 Agenda points directly and indirectly to the importance of DRM in nine of its SDGs. These refer to building the resilience of the poorest members of the population to external shocks in SDG 1.5, and to strengthening sustainable agricultural practices to support food security (SDG 2.4). Consideration is given to building early warning capacities related to the health risks (SDG 3.d) that may arise in connection with disasters. It is also important to protect and restore water-related ecosystems that help to prevent disasters (SDG 6.6). Infrastructures (SDG 9.1, 9.a) in cities and human settlements (SDG 11.5, 11.b and c) are to be better prepared for disasters in order to significantly reduce the population’s vulnerability. In this sector, special emphasis is placed on measures to combat climate change and its impacts (SDG 13.1-3, 13.a-b). SDG 14.2 refers to strengthening the resilience of marine and coastal ecosystems, and SDG 15 (SDG 15.1-4, 15.9) to protecting and restoring the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems. Gender equality (SDG 5.1), reducing inequalities (SDG 10.2) and the LNOB principle are fundamental components of disaster risk management.
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Crisis prevention and peacebuilding aim to strengthen the capacities of partner countries to deal with conflict without recourse to violence, using approaches that are adapted to the individual country. Further aims are to reduce the causes of conflict and to help to improve the general conditions for peaceful and sustainable development. This is done among other things by building or strengthening and institutionalising capacities for non-violent conflict management, dialogue and mediation, for peace education, the prevention of violence and for dealing with past injustice; for providing psychosocial support and for strengthening social cohesion between different groups in society.
SDG 16, the ‘peace goal’, is key to the peacebuilding sector since peace is an enabler for achieving the other goals. Apart from SDG 16, other 2030 Agenda goals aim to reduce violence, deaths due to violence (SDG 16.1, 16.2.), violence in the form of modern slavery, human trafficking, forced labour, child labour and child soldiers (SDG 8.7) as well as violence towards women, girls and children (SDG 5.2, 5.3) and to strengthen inclusive institutions to prevent violence (SDG 16.a). The reduction of all forms of discrimination (SDG 16.b), especially against women and girls (SDG 5.1), and the reduction of inequalities and the promotion of self-determination, equal treatment and the inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status (SDG 10.2, 10.3), especially women, girls and young people (SDG 10.4) are essential in order to reduce the causes of conflict. This includes fair and secure/safe access to services and to economic and natural resources, accommodation, public spaces and means of transport (SDG 1.4, SDG 4.5, SDG 6.1, SDG 8.6, SDG 11.1, 11.2, 11.7), compliance with labour and social standards (SDG 8.8) and fair wages (SDG 8.5) in order to reduce perceived inequalities and injustice or to prevent them in the first place. Peacebuilding measures are underpinned by the strengthening of education systems and institutions, cultural diversity, non-violence, human rights, gender equality and a culture of peace (SDG 4.7, 4.a). They are also shored up by the promotion of corresponding policies and laws on non-discrimination and equal treatment (SDG 1.b, SDG 5.c, SDG 6.5, SDG 10.3, 10.4 and SDG 11.3). In order to achieve peacebuilding goals, social, economic and political participation by all, especially women (SDG 5.3), must be secured by setting up inclusive and responsive institutions and by means of participatory, inclusive and representative decision-making processes (SDG 16.7). Key framework conditions in this context are the reduction of crime and corruption (SDG 16.4, 16.5), promotion of the rule of law, access to information (SDG 16.10), good governance (SDG 16.3, 16.6, 16.10) and the provision of legal identity (target 16.9).
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Of the two related topics displacement and migration, the 2030 Agenda explicitly addresses migration, which is dealt with at GIZ by the Sectoral Department, Competence Centres 4C40 and 4B00. The advisory services provided by Competence Centre 4C40 comprise economic, medical and psychosocial support for refugees and displaced persons as well as their social, economic and political (re)integration in host communities.
The themes addressed by Competence Centre 4C40 focus on target 10.7, which aims to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration through the implementation of well-managed migration policies. Other targets that specifically concern the target group of migrants are target 10.c, which refers to reducing the transaction costs of migrant remittances, and target 3.c, which relates to retaining the health workforce in developing countries, stemming the brain drain. SDG 5.2, SDG 8.7 and SDG 16.2 explicitly call for the elimination of human trafficking, and SDG 8.8 calls for the protection of migrants’ labour rights. Refugees and migrants are often among the most vulnerable sections of society and, together with their host communities, are the key target group for interventions under the displacement and migration remit of Competence Centre 4C40, as part of the 2030 Agenda’s ‘leave no one behind’ principle.
Many other SDGs address the direct or indirect structural causes of displacement or the reasons for migration and displacement. These include poverty and inequality (SDG 1.1, 1.5, SDG 10.2), hunger and food insecurity (SDG 2.1), climate change and desertification (SDG 13.1, 13.3 und SDG 15.3), and a lack of perspectives (education, SDG 4.1-6 and employment, SDG 8.5-6). Target 16.1 specifically mentions the reduction of violent conflict, which is a main cause of displacement.
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“Sustainable development cannot be realized without peace and security; and peace and security will be at risk without sustainable development. The new Agenda recognizes the need to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies that provide equal access to justice and that are based on respect for human rights […] on effective rule of law and good governance at all levels and on transparent, effective and accountable institutions.”
- Declaration, 35